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Tentative Pacing Guide

 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

I: Force, Motion, and Experimental Design (6 weeks)                             

 

Overview/Summary:

 

Force…

 

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-PS3-1

Construct and interpret graphical displays of data to describe the relationships of kinetic energy to the mass of an object and to the speed of an object.

3-1a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

3-1b

I can calculate kinetic energy.

 

3-1c

I can calculate potential energy.

 

3-1d

I can calculate speed and velocity.

 

3-1e

I can construct graphical displays of data.

 

3-1f

I can interpret graphical displays of data.

 

3-1g

I can design and construct a prototype that meets the criteria and is within the constraints.

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

 

Kinetic

Speed

Linear Equation

Dependent Variable

Motion

Potential

Velocity

Constraints

Distance

Force

Energy

Inertia

Criteria

Hypothesis

Point of Reference

Mass

Momentum

Independent Variable

Conclusion

Average Speed

 

 

Theory

Law

Instantaneous Speed

 

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

 

  • Car Design with budget sheet provided
  • Car Re-design with supplies provided by students, but constraints provided by teacher
  • Speed calculation lab based on various levels of movement
 
                 

 

 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

II: Response to Stimuli (3 weeks)

Overview/Summary:

Stimuli…

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-LS1-8

Gather and synthesize information that sensory receptors respond to stimuli by sending messages to the brain for immediate behavior or storage as memories.

1-8a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

1-8b

I can identify the structures of a neuron.

 

1-8c

I can discuss the functions of the main regions of the brain.

 

1-8d

I can differentiate between voluntary and involuntary responses.

 

1-8e

I can describe how sensory receptors respond to stimuli as creating a memory or behavior.

 

1-8f

I can develop and conduct an experiment with measurable data that illustrates a response to stimuli

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

Neuron

Cell Body

Cerebrum

Stimuli

Chemical

Nucleus

Axon

Cerebellum

Response

Peripheral Nervous System

Dendrite

Axon Terminal

Medulla

Homeostasis

Central Nervous System

Motor

Sensory

Voluntary

Involuntary

Electrical

Reflex

Spinal Cord

Brain

Receptors

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

  • Response Rate Lab
  • Youtube videos on visual, taste, and auditory reception
  • Neuron diagram
  • 3-D neuron model
                         

 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

III: Earth’s History (3 weeks)

Overview/Summary:

Rocks…

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-ESS1-4

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence from rock strata for how the geologic time scale is used to organize Earth’s 4.6 billion year old history.

1-4a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

1-4b

I can explain and use the principles of Stratigraphy to determine relative ages.

 

1-4c

I can construct a scale model to illustrate a geological time line of the Earth.

 

1-4d

I can explain the Law of Superposition.

 

08-LS4-1

(Part II)

Analyze and interpret data for patterns in the fossil record that document the existence, diversity, extinction, and change of life forms throughout the history of life on Earth under the assumption that natural laws operate today as in the past.

4-1a

I can identify patterns in fossil records to describe how organisms changed over time.

 

4-1b

I can explain the theories of uniformitarianism and catastrophism.

 

4-1c

I can explain the differences between relative and absolute dating of fossils and rock layers.

 

 

 

08-LS4-2

Apply scientific ideas to construct an explanation for the anatomical similarities and differences among modern organisms and between modern and fossil organisms to infer evolutionary relationships.

4-2a

I can prove evolutionary relationships between organisms based on fossil records.

 

4-2b

I can use fossil records to determine changes in organisms over time.

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

Paleozoic

Mesozoic

Cenozoic

Precambrian

Relative dating

Absolute Dating

Law of Superposition

Stratigraphy

Rock Strata

Fossil

Extinction

Geologic Time Scale

Uniformitarianism

Catastrophism

Isotopes

Half-life

Mold and cast

Trace fossil

Index fossil

Intrusive Inclusion

Suggested Resources & Activities

  • Geologic Time Scale model
  • Rock Strata kit (Laura’s room)
  • Half-life activity
                           

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

IV: Natural Selection (3 weeks)

 

Overview/Summary:

Change…

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-LS4-3

Analyze displays of pictorial data to compare patterns of similarities in the embryological development across multiple species to identify relationships not evident in the fully formed anatomy.

4-3a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

4-3b

I can infer patterns among embryos of different organisms by comparing anatomical structures.

 

 

 

08-LS4-4

Construct an explanation based on evidence that describes how genetic variations of traits in a population increase some individuals’ probability of surviving and reproducing in a specific environment.

4-4a

I can show the relationship between natural selection, evolution, and survival of organisms.

 

4-4b

I can identify pros and cons of specific variations in species.

 

4-4c

I can construct an explanation on how a variation can lead to a beneficial mutation which can allow a species to survive.

 

 

 

 

08-LS4-6

Use mathematical representations to support explanations of how natural selection may lead to increases and decreases of specific traits in populations over time.

4-6a

I can use data to explain how natural selection can increase or decrease population size over time.

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

Evolution

Natural Selection

Adaptation

Variation

Embryology

Homologous Structures

Vestigial Structures

Species

Trait

Anatomical Structures

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

  • Darwinia Lab
  • Opposable Thumb Lab
                 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

V: Growth and Development (7 weeks)

Overview/Summary:

Kids…

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-LS3-1
 

Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism.

3-1a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

3-1b

I can identify mutations that are harmful, beneficial, and neutral in an organism.

 

3-1c

I will identify and explain three types of genetic mutations: insertion, deletion, and substitution.

 

 

 

 

08-LS3-2

Develop and use a model to describe why asexual reproduction results in offspring with identical genetic information and sexual reproduction results in offspring with genetic variation.

3-2a

I can describe asexual and sexual reproduction in terms of genetic variation.

 

3-2b

I can develop a model to display genetic variation as a result of sexual reproduction.

 

 

 

 

08-LS4-5

Gather and synthesize information about the technologies that have changed the way humans influence the inheritance of desired traits in organisms.

4-5a

I can describe and explain artificial and natural selection.

 

4-5b

I can explain how genetic engineering can impact genetic inheritance.

 

4-5c

I can provide examples and techniques used in artificial selection.

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

Gene

Chromosome

Trait

DNA

Nitrogenous Bases

Mutation

Asexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction

Inheritance

Punnett Square

Offspring

Clones

Insertion

Deletion

Substitution

Genetic Variation

GMO

Genetic Engineering

Selective Breeding

Pedigree

Homozygous

Heterozygous

Dominant Alleles

Recessive Alleles

Genotype

Phenotype

Hybrid

Sex-linked Trait

Artificial Selection

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

  • Punnett Squares
  • Genetic Engineering debate
                         

 

 

 

 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

VI: Ecology (4 weeks)

 

Overview/Summary:

 

Relationships…

 

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

08-LS2-4
 

Construct an argument supported by empirical evidence that changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect populations.

2-4a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

2-4b

I can describe characteristics of an ecosystem to infer about changes in populations.

 

2-4c

I can identify and discuss interrelationships among organisms.

 

2-4d

I can discuss energy transfer through ecosystems.

 

2-4e

I can identify limiting factors and how they affect population size.

 

2-4f

I can determine the carrying capacity of a population within an ecosystem.

 

2-4g

I can identify how changes to physical or biological components of an ecosystem affect population.

 

08-LS2-5

Evaluate competing design solutions for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem services.

2-5a

I can design a technological solution for maintaining biodiversity in an ecosystem.

 

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

 

Ecology

Population

Species

Community

Ecosystem

 

Biosphere

Biotic

Abiotic

Producer

Consumer

 

Predator

Prey

Carnivore

Herbivore

Omnivore

 

Detritivore

Parasite

Host

Food Chain

Food Web

 

Limiting Factors

Carrying Capacity

Symbiosis

Mutualism

Commensalism

 

Parasitism

Biodiversity

 

 

 

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

 

  • Limiting Factors Simulation (Oh Deer, How Many Bears, etc.)
  • Invasive Species Biodiversity Project (rotate between years species: zebra mussels, amer honeysuckle, Burmese pythons)
 
                       

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Subject:

Science

Grade:

8

Unit:

VII: Earth Systems (4 weeks)

 

Overview/Summary:

 

The Earth…

 

Code

NGSS

CLT#

Clear Learning Targets

 

 

08-ESS3-1
(Part I)

Construct a scientific explanation based on evidence for how the uneven distributions of Earth’s mineral, energy, and groundwater resources are the result of past and current geoscience processes.

3-1a

I can master all necessary content vocabulary to justify my understanding in writing.

 

 

3-1b

I can identify and discuss the types of renewable and nonrenewable resources.

 

 

 

 

08-ESS3-4

Construct an argument supported by evidence for how increases in human population and per-capita consumption of natural resources impact Earth’s systems.

3-4a

I can describe how human populations’ consumption of resources impact Earth’s systems. 

 

 

 

 

08-ESS3-5 (Part II)

Ask questions to clarify evidence of the factors that have caused the rise in global temperatures over the past century.

3-5a

I can discuss the effects of different sources of pollution on the environment.

 

 

3-5b

I can identify evidence of factors that have caused increase global temperatures.

 

 

3-5c

I can discuss long-term effects of global warming on the environment.

 

 

08-ESS3-2. (Part III)

Analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast future catastrophic events and inform the development of technologies to mitigate their effects.

3-2a

I can analyze and interpret data on natural hazards to forecast catastrophic events.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

08-ESS3-3

Apply scientific principles to design a method for monitoring and minimizing a human impact on the environment.*

3-3a

I can explore and design a plan to reduce human impact on the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Key Vocabulary

 

Non renewable

Renewable

Biomass

Fossil Fuel

Geothermal

 

Hydropower

Solar Energy

Nuclear Energy

Wind Energy

Generator

 

Global warming

Pollution

Earthquake

Tsunami

Hurricane

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Suggested Resources & Activities

 

  • The Lorax activity
  • Hurricane data plotting activity
  • Earthquake seismograph intepretation